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A Brief History Of Life And Literary Career Of Mir Taqi Mir

There is no denying the fact that Urdu is increasingly becoming one of the most renowned languages of the world. When a foreign learner starts learning Urdu, he or she comes across various ages in which the language developed, especially the contributions of the poets and intellectuals towards the progress of the language.

career of Mir Taqi Mir

One of the major names that every Urdu learner comes across when dealing with Urdu literature in general and Urdu poetry in particular is the name of Mir Taqi Mir. For Urdu natives, Mir is one of the greatest poets of Urdu language and the initiation of Urdu Ghazal is associated with him. The lines below discuss a brief life history of Mir Taqi Mir.

The real name of Mir was Muhammad Taqi. The word ‘Mir’ is the takhallus which the poets have in Urdu, it is the same as penname as used by poets of other languages. Mir being renonwned for his penname rather than his real name is evident of the fact that he is one of the greats who was renowned for his work.

Mir was born in Agra in the eighteenth century, and it is where he lived till his death. At the time of Mir there were different schools of Urdu poetry spread across various regions of subcontinent. However, despite of being form Agra and then travelling across subcontinent, Mir was known as a great and a representative of Delhi School of Urdu poetry.

In Agra, when the father of Mir died, he moved to Delhi in order to complete his education and also gain financial patronage. It was his time in Delhi in which he wrote most of his masterpieces and major compilation. Mir lived most of his life in Delhi, however, things changed when Delhi got ransacked by Ahmad Shah Abdali. After the invasion Mir migrated from Delhi to Lucknow on the invitation of the king of Lucknow, and there he became a member of his court and received patronage. However, things grew severe in the latter part of his life, and Mir died out of an overdose of a purgative in Lucknow.

As far as the literary career of Mir is concerned, his complete work is known as Kulliaat, which contains six Diwans, that have over thirteen thousand verses. These verses are in almost all the poetic forms in Urdu such as satire, mustezaad, qasidad, rubai, masnav, ghazal and so on. However, it is the Ghazal of Urdu for which Mir is most known in Urdu literature.

 Although Ghalib rose to prominence a century late than Mir, however, he also acknowledge his greatness and considered him one of the greatest poets of Urdu language in general and Urdu ghazal in particular.

There have been numerous researchers and critics who have analyzed the works of Mir and found him a great when it comes to rhythm and lyre in Urdu poetry, especially the touch of sensitivity and personal tone in Urdu ghazal.

In a nutshell, for those who want to learn Urdu and are interested in knowing about the literature in general and Urdu poetry in particular are highly advised to read the poetry of Mir, as he is the pioneer of Urdu poetry and perhaps the greatest of all.


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The Three Periods of Literary Career of Sadat Hassan Manto

When it comes to world renowned scholars and intellectuals who have dwelled deep into humans psychology and bring about the darkness and obscenity that resides behind the apparent civil and ethical abode, one of the greatest names that comes to mind is Sadat Hassan Manto.

Carrer of saadat hassan

Sadat Hassan Manto is one of the renowned Urdu scholars, intellectuals, and writers. He is renowned all over the world for his style of writing, the imagery he has used, the satire of society he has depicted and the kind of realistic portrayal of the society that he has given in his writings.

In addition to the renowned works of Manto that are a part of every urdu learning course, the literary career of Manto has been divided into three categories, each comprising of a different style of writing. The lines below discuss those three periods of the works of Manto.

First Period:

The first period of Manto started in 1939, which was the initial stage when Manto got involved into writing something. In this phase of his writing, the primary focus of Manto was on translating foreign works into urdu. In this regard, he started translating English and Russian stories. Once the stories were in a sufficient quantity, he got them published with the title of ‘Russi Afsane’. This period of life of Mufti comprises primarily of the translation work. From this translation work, Manto found some motivation and then in the year 1936 he published his first work of short stories by the name of ‘Atish Pare’. After that he moved to Bombay which started the next phase of his literary career.

Second Period:

 In 1936, Manto moved to Bombay where for few years he worked as the editor of the magazine Musawwir. It was a film magazine that was published on monthly bases. Thus, with the help of this magazine Manto found his way into the film industry and started wirting film scripts and stories. However, the film business did not work well at that time and he had to move to Delhi to accept a job as a script writer in All India Radio in 1941. In this period of his career, he produced quality radio plays and dramas in addition to earning a good living for his family. Therefore, Manto continued on playing the same role in his literary career until the partition of subcontinent.

Third Period:

The third period of Manto’s writing is the one where he started writing afrfter migrating to Pakistan. During this phase, Manto produced one of his masterpieces like Thanda Gosht, Buu and Toba Take Singh. Although Manto produced masterpieces in this phase of his life, however, there was little regard or return for him at that time because he was prosecuted for obscenity and vulgarity at both legal and social level. Hence, during this phase of his life and career, Manto lived hand to mouth and this was what eventually lead to his death in 1955 in Lahore.

Bottom Line:

In short, Sadat Hassan Manto is one of the acclaimed writers in urdu language, and if he were to be taken out of the urdu literature, then the literature would lose all its charm, realism and satire. Although he is reckoned one of the greatest writers, however, he did not enjoy this claim and title in his life, like all the other great writers across the globe.


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Why Should Parents Encourage The Speaking Of Urdu To Their Bilingual Children

Lot of the times it happens that people who migrate to a foreign country, get settled there are have children find it hard to communicate with the children because their children growing up in a bilingual environment. The language in which the children speak in the public is the foreign language, while what they are exposed to in the home is their native language.

Parent encourage to speak urdu

It has been observed, that the children usually do not go for speaking the native language such as Urdu in their homes, rather, they prefer communicating with the parents in the target or foreign language. This attitude of children has a lot to do with the way the way parents bring them up. Usually parents do not speak Urdu with their children because they think that it might hinder in their learning of target language. Thus, when the children become proficient in target language, they leave using their native language.

The lines below discuss the advantage of using Urdu with bilingual children at home.

Academics:

When children grow a little, they start discussing their studies and assignments with parents. Therefore, at that point it is imperative that both children and parents communicate in the same language so that they message conveyed is the same as message received. When the children are bilingual, and they don’t use the native language with parents, the ultimate result is parents not being able to properly comprehend or convey the message, as a result of which the competency in academia of the children goes down, as far as cooperation from parents is concerned. Therefore, parents must speak Urdu in their homes and should encourage their bilingual children to communicate in Urdu as well.

Expressing Emotion:

The second reason why parents must encourage speaking of Urdu in their bilingual children is the fact that native language helps express the emotions better compared to the learned language. The native language is acquired by the children whereas the second language is learned, therefore, it is quite natural that the expressing of emotion of children will be far better in Urdu as compared to the second language. However, when parents do not create such an atmosphere in the home where the children would speak in Urdu, the result is the children finding it hard to express their emotions, and as a result an emotion gulf takes place between people. Therefore, it is imperative that the parents encourage speaking of Urdu in their homes.

 Community Connection:

Thirdly, the children who grow up in a bilingual environment have two communities to live with and interact. They interact and communicate with the second language community as well as with their native community. If the focus of parents is only towards second language, then the children will also share the features and values of the second language community and forget their native values. Therefore, if parents want their children to know about their native values and culture by staying in contact with their native community, then they need to encourage the speaking of Urdu in their homes so that the children could stay intact with their heritage and culture.

Conclusion:

In a nutshell, it is imperative that parents encourage their bilingual children to continue on speaking Urdu in their home so that they are able to communicate effectively, and help each other out in the time of their need and personal development.


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The Imperativeness OF Encouraging The Use Of Urdu In Bilingual Children

It is an increasing debate in the world of today that whether or not children should be taught to become bilingual. There are theorists and linguists who argue in favor and against the idea and have their own reasons to support the argument, however, the general consensus is that the children should be exposed to multiple languages so that they get the edge of understanding two languages that can help them in the future.

Use of urdu in bilingual children

However, when it comes to raising children as bilinguals, parents usually prefer their children learning the second language more compared to their native language. This condition is applicable in the case of children who have Urdu as their first language and are in a foreign environment where they have to learn the second language. The lines below discuss the importance of teaching Urdu as a native language to bilingual children.

Parent-Children Communication:

The first and foremost important reason why Urdu speaking parents must teach their bilingual children Urdu is the fact that it helps in effective communication between the two. When the parents do not encourage their children to speak Urdu, the ultimate result is the children leaving their native language and start conversing in the target language, which then makes it difficult for the parents as for them Urdu is the primary language of communication and when children don’t communicate in that there obviously occurs a communication gap. Therefore, in order to make sure that the parent-children communication stays strong, the parents must encourage the children speaking Urdu.

Link With Culture And Heritage:

The second major reason why parents must make sure that their children continue on speaking Urdu while being proficient in the target language is the fact that Urdu is their native language and when they keep on practicing Urdu, it means that they stay intact with their culture and heritage. The speaking or Urdu language ensures that the children keep on reading Urdu as well, therefore, when the children do so, they come across Urdu pieces of writing which carry the elements of their culture and heritage. Therefore, in this way the parents can ensure that the children stay intact with their culture and carry the values by understanding their existence and importance in the heredity they come from.

Perspective:

The third reason why Urdu speaking parents must ensure that their children also learn and practice Urdu whilst being in a target language environment is that the learning or Urdu gives them a different perspective to view and analyze life. Therefore, the knowledge of Urdu is not just knowledge of language, rather it is another perspective given to the children with the help of which they are able to view and analyze life differently.

Conclusion:

In a nutshell, it is imperative that Urdu speaking parents who live in foreign countries where Urdu is not the first language, they must make sure that in addition to learning the first language of those countries, the children also keep on using their native language so that they stay intact with their heritage, get a new perspective to see life and the communication between parents and children becomes effective.


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Key Criterions For Assessing The Proficiency In Urdu Language Learning

When it comes to learning a foreign language, there are different criteria on the bases of which the proficiency of a learner is viewed and analyzed. If the progress in learning is not judged on regular bases in a proper way, then one cannot properly asses the kind of progress one is making in the learning process.

Proficiency in learning urdu language

When it comes to learning a foreign language like Urdu, taking admission in an Urdu learning schools is the first step in the process. However, when one formally starts learning, then it becomes imperative that the learner keeps track of learning and assesses it on regular bases. The lines below give some factors that need to be considered when assessing the proficiency in Urdu language.

Correct Use Of Grammar:

The first and perhaps the most important factor that needs to be assessed when weighing the proficiency in Urdu language is the use of grammar by the learner. In Urdu, grasping the grammar is one of the hardest things to do and requires great practice. Therefore, if a learner is able to use the grammar of the language properly, then his or her progress in learning of Urdu can be regarded as satisfactory. Similarly, if the learner is not able to use the grammar of the language properly, then the progress of the learning is not satisfactory.

Diversity in Vocabulary:

The second tool criteria that can be used to weigh and analyze the progress made by a learner in learning Urdu language is the diversity in the Urdu vocabulary used by the learner. In this regard, it is imperative that the analyzer of the learner him or herself has sufficient knowledge about the language and is able to understand the different kinds of words used by the learner in the language. Moreover, in order to improve the vocabulary the learner can read different Urdu magazines, listen to songs and so on to ensure that the vocabulary gets diversified. Ergo, the diversity in vocabulary is another tool that can be used for the assessment of the progress made by the learner when pursuing learning of Urdu as a second language.

Pronunciation:

The third tool that can be used pertaining to assessment of progress in Urdu is the pronunciation of Urdu. When it comes to analyzing the linguistic competence of a learner, the speaking of a learner holds the primary position. In analyzing pronunciation, the judge needs to make sure that the pronunciation of the learner is according to the standard Urdu language and not the slang or its dialectic forms. Therefore, if and when a learner is able to speak the Urdu words and phrases in the right form with right sounds , stress and intonations, only then can a learner be regarded as proficient in Urdu language.

Bottom Line:

In a nutshell, it is imperative that a learner views and analyzes his or her competency on the bases of pronunciation of the language, the correct use of grammar and the diversity of vocabulary. The better a learner is in these areas, the more proficient he or she is in Urdu.


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Key Tips for Self-Learners of Urdu as a Second Language

Urdu is one of the renowned Indo-European languages of the world. It is greatly spoken in the subcontinent part of Asia. Although the language originated in subcontinent however, because of the phenomenon of globalization the speakers of the language have spread all over the world and because of this global spread the awareness about Urdu is increasing.

tips for how to learn urdu as a second language while living abroad

Besides the spread of the speakers of the language, the geographical importance of the areas in which it is spoken has also given rise to the importance of Urdu and people have started learning it and are pursuing higher qualification in it as well. The lines below discuss some tips, which an Urdu learner whos is learning the language on his or her own can follow for better learning of Urdu.

  • The first thing is to start with Urdu alphabets. In this regard, you can take help from internet and download the script for Urdu alphabets. It is the first step in learning, where you firstly get accustomed to the images of the alphabets, and then you need to listen to the sounds of the alphabets in order to make sense of the way they are or will be used in the language. Therefore, before anything, you need to get familiar with the Urdu alphabets and their sounds.
  • The second thing that you need to focus upon pertaining to learning Urdu as a foreign language is finding similarities between your mother tongue and Urdu. It is one of the most effective techniques pertaining to second language learning and it is also a fact that languages no matter how geographically distinct they are from one another, at some point assimilate with each other. Therefore, it is imperative that you start comparing the languages, identify the similarities and try learning and understanding the similarities first.
  • The third thing that you need to do is to improve your Urdu vocabulary. The whole language learning is constructed around the vocabulary, therefore, the more words you add into your vocabulary, the more ideas and concepts in Urdu you get to understand and put them into practice while using the words. Therefore, it is imperative that you use dictionaries, software, translation and other Urdu related material to help you increase vocabulary.
  • The fourth thing you need to do pertaining to learning of Urdu is read Urdu as much as you can. Reading Urdu is one of the best ways with the help of which one can improve Urdu language. Reading of Urdu comes with vocabulary items, grammar and syntax structures all of which lead to increasing the proficiency of the learner. Therefore, it is imperative that an Urdu learner reads as much Urdu as possible and reads all sorts of material related to Urdu learning.
  • The fifth and perhaps the most obvious thing that needs to be done pertaining to Urdu learning is to practice Urdu as much as possible. This practice should not be specific to speaking only, rather the practice should take care of all the four skills of learning namely speaking, reading, writing and listening. Therefore, in addition to reading Urdu, you must speak Urdu, listen to Urdu songs and practice writing daily diary in Urdu.

In a nutshell, the importance of Urdu is growing day by day, therefore, if you cannot afford to learn the language formally, then by following the aforementioned tips you can pursue learning on your own.


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Tips For Learning Urdu For The Purpose Of Communication

Pakistan is one of the renowned countries of the world. Due to its geographical importance and the rising political importance it has become one of the major countries of interest across the globe. This rise in the popularity of Pakistan has also given rise to the importance of its official language, Urdu.

Tips for Learning Urdu For The Purpose Of Communication

Urdu is the official language of Pakistan and is one of the most enriched and versatile languages of the world. Although the Urdu contains a diverse range of literature and linguistic depth, however, the primary focus of people learning Urdu today is to be able to use the language for communication purposes. The lines below give some effective tips which can be utilized for learning Urdu for the purpose of communication.

Understanding The Structure:

The first and foremost important thing pertaining to learning Urdu for the purpose of communication is to understand the sentence structure of Urdu. In Urdu, like all other languages, there is a formal structure, and if changes are made in the structure, the sentence fails to communicate the sense.  On contrary to the subject, verb and object structure in English, Urdu uses a subject, object, verb structure. Therefore, try keeping the structure in mind and then accordingly fit in the words for proper and effective communication.

Singular Pronouns:

The second thing you need to know pertaining to using Urdu for the purpose of communication is the singular pronouns in Urdu language. These pronouns are what make communication possible and there is an equal number of pronouns in Urdu as are in English language. Therefore, it is imperative that a learner knows and remembers the Urdu singular pronouns to make sure that they are properly used in speech.

Plural Pronouns:

In addition to the singular pronouns, there are also plural pronouns in Urdu that play their part in communication. For every singular pronoun there are plural pronouns, therefore, a learner must master the plurals in order to ensure that they are properly utilized in speech for effective communication.

The Use OF ‘To Be’:

One of the most important thing that the learner has to know about Urdu, which is perhaps the most difficult to master is the use of the infinitive verb ‘to be’ in Urdu. This infinitive verb is used in many forms and for different purposes in Urdu. In some cases this verb is used as a plain verb and describes some action, whereas in other cases it is used to produce present tense. Therefore, in order to communicate in Urdu effectively, a learner needs to know the use of the infinitive verb, the different forms it takes and the different functions it performs.

The Use Of Pronoun As Object:

Another distinctive feature of Urdu, which the learner needs to master for effective communication, is the use of pronouns as objects. In Urdu, pronouns with a slight change can be converted into objects and in some cases these objects are utilized to start a sentence. Therefore, this intricate matter needs to be understood in order to avoid mistakes in communication.

Conclusion:

In a nutshell, it is imperative that an Urdu learner pays heed towards the minute yet important distinctive elements of Urdu language and before practicing communication has a firm grasp over them for better and effective communication.

Recommended Readings:

Useful Tips to Improve Urdu Listening and Speaking Skills